Ymir was a hermaphrodite and could reproduce asexually; when he slept, more giants leapt forth from his legs and from the sweat of his armpits.
She nourished Ymir with her milk, and she, in turn, was nourished by salt-licks in the ice. The half-god, half-giant children of Bor and Bestla were Odin , who became the chief of the Aesir gods, and his two brothers, Vili and Ve. Odin and his brothers slew Ymir and set about constructing the world from his corpse. They fashioned the oceans from his blood, the soil from his skin and muscles, vegetation from his hair, clouds from his brains, and the sky from his skull.
The gods eventually formed the first man and woman, Ask and Embla , from two tree trunks, and built a fence around their dwelling-place, Midgard , to protect them from the giants. Thematically, Ymir is the personification of the chaos before creation, which is also depicted as the impersonal void of Ginnungagap. It is no-thing-ness.
But the giants are more than just forces of destruction. In the words of medievalist Margaret Clunies Ross:. These raw materials are of diverse kinds and include intellectual capital such as the ability to brew ale as well as the cauldron in which it is made, and abstractions made concrete like the mead of poetry and the runes of wisdom. Not only does Ymir fit this pattern; mythologically speaking, his death and dismemberment is the paradigmatic model for this pattern. This also explains why Ymir is depicted as a hermaphrodite who can reproduce on his own asexually.
The gods had to create that as part of their task of giving differentiated forms to what had previously been formless and undifferentiated.
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Various other creation myths from other peoples have used a hermaphroditic being to illustrate this same concept,  so we can be confident that this is also what the Norse meant here — despite the superficial counterexample of Audhumla and her udder. Copenhagen : Reitzel , — Correspondance de Georg Brandes: Lettres choisies et annotee , ed. Copenhagen : Tiderne Skifter , —87 , vol. Brandes , Georg , Levned , 3 vols. Copenhagen : Gyldendal , —08 , vol. Bratton , Jacky , et al. Stuttgart : Metzler , — , vol. Bredsdorff , Elias ed. Breve fra og til Holger Drachmann , ed.
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Oxford : Oxford University Press , Oslo : Gyldendal , —57 , vol. Copenhagen : Gyldendal , — After five failed attempts I suggested she tried lowering the pitch of her voice. It worked first time. In the tech world, the implicit assumption that men are the default human remains king. It could track blood pressure; steps taken; blood alcohol level; even molybdenum and copper intake. But as many women pointed out at the time, they forgot one crucial detail: a period tracker.
When Apple launched their AI, Siri, users in the US found that she ironically could find prostitutes and Viagra suppliers, but not abortion providers. Men are more likely than women to be involved in a car crash, which means they dominate the numbers of those seriously injured in them. Women tend to sit further forward when driving. This is because we are on average shorter.
Our legs need to be closer to reach the pedals, and we need to sit more upright to see clearly over the dashboard. And our wilful deviation from the norm means that we are at greater risk of internal injury on frontal collisions. The angle of our knees and hips as our shorter legs reach for the pedals also makes our legs more vulnerable. Women are also at higher risk in rear-end collisions. We have less muscle on our necks and upper torso, which make us more vulnerable to whiplash by up to three times , and car design has amplified this vulnerability.
Crash-test dummies were first introduced in the s, and for decades they were based around the 50th-percentile male. The most commonly used dummy is 1. In the early s, researchers based at Michigan University argued for the inclusion of a 50th-percentile female in regulatory tests, but this advice was ignored by manufacturers and regulators. In no test is an anthropometrically correct female crash-test dummy required.
The seatbelt test, one of the frontal-collision tests, and both lateral-collision tests all specify that a 50th-percentile male dummy should be used. There is one EU regulatory test that requires what is called a 5th-percentile female dummy, which is meant to represent the female population. But there are a number of data gaps. And secondly, this female dummy is not really female.
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