They never lacked an element of polemic. After , Cartesian physics began to be taught everywhere in Europe A number of changes helped little by little to topple the Aristotelian edifice. Firstly, beginning at the end of the s, teachers began to reorganize the teaching of philosophy by starting with metaphysics.
The teaching of Descartes attracted also a number of professors in the academies of the Protestant world. As for philosophy, it greatly flourishes here. Chouet the son of the bookseller and Mr. Des Cartes with great renown and attended by a great number of foreigners. The reception of Newton in France caused Descartes to be identified with the old philosophy. A general reconsideration of the importance of different philosophical traditions then took place, as did a parallel movement of peace agreements and reconciliations in favor of pacifying polemics which normalize references to Cartesianism and defuse its polemical character.
The final major battle took place between and on the question of the determination of longitude and the interpretation of universal attraction. Academic networks were mobilized to ensure the triumph of Newton. In Encyclopedist circles, the Cartesian inheritance was debated. It offered a social model of the philosopher, but its physics was rejected.
People accepted its geometry and took inspiration from its metaphysics. Descartes left the only field of knowledge to became a cultural reference. In the Academy of Sciences, it constituted an important but non-essential practice, one among other activities more directly tied to their intellectual work. In the French Academy, it was from the very beginning an academic genre par excellence.
Marc Fumaroli sees it as the specific characteristic of the institution 34 which testifies to its critical vigilance.
Fontenelle quotations. How M.
Thomas enlarges, with all these accessory details, the principal merit of Descartes and above all the sense that we have of his genius. The author proposes from the start to abandon the strict framework of the Fontenellian eulogy 42 and the biographies which had defined militant hagiography, in order to propose an ethics of debt and redemption. Descartes is an outlaw who Thomas follows in his successive exiles.
At the same time, it embodies a politicization of this figure. This tension could not be erased without a reintegration into the national community.softbackcredep.gq
Thus, as Jean-Claude Bonnet has suggested, in the second half of the eighteenth century the eulogy of men of letters replaced the hegemonic figure of the king who had inhabited all the eulogies of the Great and of the servants of the State celebrated by the Academy The erosion of the figure of the king left a space for a discourse about the Nation From the exiled philosopher to the Parisian Descartes, the academic fabrication of the hero profoundly modified the lexicon of Cartesian grandeur that had been fixed at the end of the seventeenth century by Adrien Baillet in , or that defined in a polemical mode by jesuit father Gabriel Daniel in his Voyage de Mr Descartes.
Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire signaled in his thesis numerous debates which ran through the lodges on the identification of Descartes as a national hero opposed to the Englishman Newton The reference served to criticize the English origins of FM thesis. Never, M[y] D[ear] B[rothers], will be proposed to you a more beautiful project, a nobler project, one more philosophical, more masonic, more patriotic, better suited to remind Foreigners of the obligation they have to the French for having enlightened Europe, as Louis the Great said in the letters-patent with which he honored Philosophy in the person of Descartes [ After Voltaire and Rousseau, Descartes was the third writer to be listed in the decree founding the Pantheon on April 4, And yet it was Descartes who provoked a calling into question of the Pantheonization of men of letters.
The old church where the monument dedicated to Descartes, was partially demolished during the Revolution. This was not a new project, since as early as 9 Thermidor the National Convention had approved a decree to grant these honors to the philosopher.
This effort conjugated both a short-term time frame — that of the Thermidorean reaction — and a long-term time-frame — the Enlightenment tradition. To Mercier, Descartes had become too closely associated since Thomas with Academism. The Pantheon had to be reserved principally for the heroes of the Revolution.
When it will see his statue pass by, it will look upon it in the same way as if it were the Grand Lama. It will not be able to learn either the goal or the necessity of this apotheosis.
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How many men of this great city are utterly unfamiliar with Descartes and his doctrine! He noticeably slowed progress through the long tyranny of his errors; he is the father of the most impertinent doctrine that has ever reigned in France. Lombard initials; capital strokes added in yellow. Old vellum, with flyleaves and pastedowns containing Latin MS dealing with impediments to matrimony and with confession. Fra[nci]sci Aquarum [i.
Inc Raulinus, Johannes: Collatio de perfecta religionis plantations 16 November For collation and transcriptions see Polain; but this copy has the fol- lowing variants: air, line 1, "Collacio"; line 10, "instau- "; a2r, line 2, "Pape"; a5r, line 3, "Canonico et Custodi ac"; c2r, line 6, "secula et.
This copy has the Marchant device at end. Lombards; without rubri- cation. MS ownership notation partly erased on title page, "Ex libris Fratris [ ] Kistlerj [? Printed by Marchant for Alexandre Aliate. Some copies are without the colophon; cf. Includes De vita et morte Aristotelis. This copy is without the colophon.
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Half modern brown morocco and brown cloth. Top edge of title page trimmed away, probably to remove an ownership mark. GW questions Marchant as printer for the brothers De Marnef and has note, " GW has note, " Polain , also nicht vor Printing variously and doubtfully assigned to Jean Dupre or to Pierre Le Rouge for Verard, though Antoine Caillaut may have had a share in the printing as well see below. Since authorities differ in the number of leaves they count in this edition, varying from 94 to , I give the collation of this copy in the order in which the quires occur: 7t 8 , A 8 , B 4 , aa 4 , a-k 8 , l The quires signed A 8 , B 4 comprise a table of scriptural references with descriptions of the illustrative borders to be found on leaves alr-e4r.
These quires, which are printed in Caillaut's type 82B, are not to be found in the copies de- scribed by any of the authorities listed below, but there seems no rea- son to doubt that they belong here, for the references are to the PARIS 23 words with which each leaf begins. Initials and paragraph marks added in red or blue. Modern red morocco by J. Autograph of R. Fisher on front flyleaf no. Dyson Perrins, so the sale did not take place ; C. Dyson Perrins bookplate and label no.
Imperfect: leaf g8 wanting; quire aa misbound as noted above. Dated according to the address in the colophon, "aparis au carrefour saint seuerin a lenseigne saint iehan leuangeliste. MS notation inside front cover, "madame desasenage"; the Fairfax Murray copy no. Imperfect: leaves al-2 in facsimile. Xylographic titles; Lombards; without rubrication.
Stamps and release stamps of the Bibliotheque Nationale on title pages. Blank leaves at end of vols. Though describing itself as containing works of Lucan, Suetonius, and Sallust, "The book is merely a life of Julius Caesar from the con- quest of Gaul to his death. Suetonius and Sallust have no part in the book and Lucan seems merely to be named because the second part of the book is more or less based on his Pharsalia.
Goff L, quoting from the Morgan catalogue no. PARIS 25 Lombards; occasional initial spaces, with guide-letters, not filled in; without rubrication. MS nota- tion inside front cover, "Achete ce magnifique livre a Jules Martin li- braire le 30 Mars Laid in at end is a duplicate of sheet r4. French translation by Robert Gaguin.
Lombards; a few initial spaces, with guide-letters, not filled in; with- out rubrication. Old doeskin; in a cloth case. MS ownership notation inside front cover, "Gilbert de [illegible]"; the Fairfax Murray copy no. Imperfect: leaf rl in facsimile; blank leaf not present. A prose adaptation by Molinet of the verse original.
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