Battle of the Teutoburg Forest - Wikipedia
Whereas Herodotus claims the cavalry was carried in the triremes, the Persian fleet had dedicated ships for this undertaking, and according to Ephorus, transports accompanied Xerxes' invasion fleet ten years later. Estimates for the cavalry are usually in the — range,  though as noted earlier Cornelius Nepos gives 10, Other modern historians have proposed other numbers for the infantry. Bengtson  estimates there were no more than 20, Persians; Paul K. Scholars estimating relatively small numbers for Persian troops argue that the army could not be very big in order to fit in the ships.
The counterargument of scholars who claim large numbers is that if the Persian army was small, then the Eretrians combined with the Athenians and Plateans could match it, and possibly have sought battle outside Eretria. Naxos alone could field "8, shields" in B. The size of the Athenian army is another subject of debate. Some recent historians have given around —,  while others favor 10, Pausanias asserts it did not surpass ,  while Justinus  and Cornelius Nepos  both give 10, as the number of the Athenians.
Herodotus tells us that at the battle of Plataea 11 years later the Athenians sent hoplites while others were at the same time engaged as epibates in the fleet that later fought at the battle of Mycale. Pausanias noticed in the trophy of the battle the names of former slaves who were freed in exchange for military services. However, for Marathon, this is not mentioned by any surviving source, and their number in Athens was not as significant in B.
Athens at that time could have fielded at least four times the force it did had it also chosen to send light troops consisting of the lower classes, for ten years later at the Battle of Salamis it had a trireme fleet  that was manned by 32, rowers, and had lost some 60 ships earlier in the Battle of Artemisium. Kampouris,  among others, notes that the political leanings of the lower classes were unreliable.
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After the Ionic revolt had shown the general unreliability of tyrants to the Persian empire, Artaphernes, in B. There the power rested on the poor with the Persian army in place to rein in any move that threatened Persia's position. Some of the poor who remembered Peisistratus well, since he had given them jobs, probably hoped for a victory of the Persians and a change in regime to give them more power, which is one of the reasons Hippias ordered the landing in Marathon where the vast majority of local inhabitants were from these social classes.
On the other hand, the Persian army hoped for an internal revolution in Athens so as to have an easy victory as in Eretria. After one year of preparations, the expeditionary force first gathered on Cilicia in the spring of B. The army boarded the Persian transports, escorted by the fleet, sailed to Samos and from there to the island of Naxos.
After a fruitless campaign there the Naxians fled to the mountains of their island and the Persians became masters of a deserted city ,  it sailed at first across the Cyclades islands and then for Carystus on the south coast of Euboea, which quickly surrendered. The Eretrians sent an urgent message to Athens for help. The Athenians agreed, but realized they needed more help.
Pheidippides arrived in Sparta on the next day, the ninth of the month. According to Herodotus, the Spartans agreed to help, but being superstitious, said that they could not march to war until the Carneian festival ended on the full moon September 9. Some modern historians hold that the Spartans set out late because of a helot revolution, and claim this was the time of a revolution mentioned by Plato. The only ones to stand by the Athenians in the battle were the Plataeans.
The small Boeotian city of Plataea had allied itself with Athens in the sixth century B.
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As to what the course of the Persian fleet was after Carystos, there is disagreement among modern historians. Some claim that Artaphernes took part of the Persian army and laid siege to Eretria, while the remainder of the army crossed with Datis and landed in the Bay of Marathon. Others claim that the events happened consecutively: at first Eretria was besieged and fell, and later the whole army landed at Schinias beach. According to Herodotus the location was chosen by Hippias because it was the most convenient location for the Persian cavalry.
The location was probably chosen because Hippias had many sympathizers there, being a relatively poor region of Athens. Herodotus reports that there was a council of the 10 tribal Strategoi, with five voting for moving to confront the enemy and five voting against it. Until a few years earlier, power in Athens resided in the nine archons who at the time were elected. There was a constitutional change though a few years earlier and the archons were chosen by lot, thus turning the polemarch's leadership into a symbolic power. Due to the deadlock, it was decided by the elected tribal generals to ask for his opinion.
After a very dramatic appeal by Miltiades, he cast the deciding vote in favor of attack. Thus, an Athenian army made of hoplites numbering probably 10, under the polemarch, marched to the north and east from Athens to meet the enemy near the landing site. The army encamped near the shrine of Heracles, where they blocked the way to Athens in an easily defensible position.
The Plataeans joined them there. The army was composed of men from the aristocracy—the upper and upper-middle classes—since armament in ancient Greece was the responsibility of the individual and not of the state even in Sparta , so men armed themselves for battle with whatever they could afford. Before Ephialtes' constitutional reforms in B.
Thus it is very understandable that they were strongly motivated to win the battle or die in the effort. For five days, the armies peacefully confronted each other, hoping for developments, with the Athenian army slowly narrowing the distance between the two camps, with pikes cut from trees covering their sides against cavalry movements. On the sixth day, when Miltiades was the prytanevon general, a rather bureaucratic rank consistent with the duty officer of modern armies—either September 12 or possibly August 12, B. The Athenians came to know from two Ionian defectors that the Persian cavalry was gone.
Where and why, along with the Persian battle plan, has been a matter of debate. It states: "The cavalry left.
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When Datis surrendered and was ready for retreat, the Ionians climbed the trees and gave the Athenians the signal that the cavalry had left. And when Miltiades realized that, he attacked and thus won.
inspira-fenae.stronglocacoes.com.br/9299-what-is.php From there comes the above-mentioned quote, which is used when someone breaks ranks before battle. According to Herodotus, by that point the generals had decided to give up their rotating leadership as prytanevon generals in favor of Miltiades. He chose the day his tribe was leading, for the attack, perhaps because he wanted to bear the full responsibility for the battle.
He decided to move against the Persians very early in that morning. He ordered two tribes that were forming the center of the Greek formation, the Leontis tribe led by Themistocles and the Antiochis tribe that was led by Aristides,  to be arranged in the depth of four ranks while the rest of the tribes in the sides were in eight men ranks.
Proponents of the latter opinion note that it is very hard to run that large a distance carrying the heavy weight of the hoplitic armor, estimated at 32 kilograms. The bulk of Persian infantry were probably Takabara lightly armed archers.
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Several lines of evidence support this. First of all, Herodotus does not mention a shield wall in Marathon, that was typical of the heavier Sparabara formation, as he specifically mentions in the Battle of Plataea and the Battle of Mycale. Also, in the depiction of the Battle of Marathon in the Stoa that was dedicated a few years later in B. The usual tactic of the Persian army was for the archers to shoot volleys of arrows to weaken and disorganize their enemy, then their excellent cavalry moved in to deliver the coup de grace.
The Persians were also at a severe disadvantage due to the size of their weapons. Hoplites carried much longer spears than their Persian enemies, extending their reach as well as protecting them. It is confirmed by Herodotus that this is how the Persian army was arrayed in the battlefield. During the Ionian revolt, the phalanx was seriously weakened by the arrows of the Persian archers before it reached hand to hand combat with them—where it excelled—because it moved slowly in order to maintain formation.
This is why Miltiades, who had great experience with the Persian army since he was forced to follow it during its campaign in Scythia in B. Herodotus, however, mentions in the description of the battle that the retreat of the center happened in order, meaning that the formation was not broken during the initial rush. This is supported by the fact that there were few casualties in that phase of the battle.
The Greek center was reduced to four ranks, from the normal eight. The wings maintained their eight ranks. If Miltiades only wanted to extend the line and prevent the Persian line from overlapping the Greeks, he would have weakened, uniformly, the whole army so as not to leave weak points. But Herodotus categorically states that it was a conscious decision to strengthen the sides  probably in order to have a strong force to defeat the weaker-in-quality Persian sides.
If the Persians had the same density as the Greeks and were 10 ranks strong then the Persian army opposing the Greeks numbered 16, Kampouris  suggests it numbered 60, since that was the standard size of a major Persian formation. As the Greeks advanced, their strong wings drew ahead of the center, which retreated according to plan.
The result was a double envelopment, and the battle ended when the whole Persian army, crowded into confusion, broke back in panic towards their ships and were pursued by the Greeks. Some, unaware of the local terrain, ran towards the swamps where they drowned. Herodotus records that 6, Persian bodies were counted on the battlefield,  and it is unknown how many perished in the swamps. Also, seven Persian ships are mentioned captured though none are mentioned sunk. Among the dead was the polemarch Callimachus and the general Stesilaos.
A story is given to us about Kynaigeirus, brother of the playwright Aeschylus who was also among the fighters. He charged into the sea, grabbed one Persian trireme, and started pulling it towards shore. A member of the crew saw him, cut off his hand, and Kynaigeirus died. It seems that Aeschylus considered that his participation in Marathon was his greatest achievement in life rather than his plays since in his gravestone there was the following epigram:. According to Ctesias, Datis was slain at Marathon. As soon as Datis had put to sea, the two center tribes stayed to guard the battlefield and the rest of the Athenians marched to Athens.
A shield had been raised over the mountain near the battle plain, which was either the signal of a successful Alcmaeonid revolution or according to Herodotus a signal that the Persian fleet was moving towards Phaliro. Seeing his opportunity lost, Artaphernes turned about and returned to Asia. Some modern historians doubt they traveled so fast. The Spartans toured the battlefield at Marathon, and agreed that the Athenians had won a great victory.
The Greek upset of the Persians, who had not been defeated on land for many decades except by Samagaetes and Scythes, both nomad tribes , caused great problems for the Persians. The Persians were shown as vulnerable. Many subject peoples revolted following the defeat of their overlords at Marathon. Order was not restored for several years. The dead of Marathon were awarded by the Athenians the special honor of being the only ones who were buried where they died instead of the main cemetery of Athens in Kerameikos.
The tomb was excavated in the s by German archaeologists.
The team, however, did not include any anthropologists, and were therefore unable to determine the number of bodies in the tomb. The same team also found a ditch containing large numbers of hastily buried human bones which was identified as the burial place of the Persians.
For the Athenians, the victory gave confidence to the people. Two years later ostracism was exercised for the first time, its first victim being a friend of Peisistratus.
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