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Economic literature: papers , articles , software , chapters , books. Academy of municipal management. The work grounded the level of examining the problems of state policy of building capable of territorial communities of Ukraine, and summarizes the content of basic notions of the research; reviewed territorial basis and system of local government capable of territorial communities; systematized competence of local self-governments capable of territorial communities with public services; described resource base capable of territorial communities and reviewed modern technology management;identified ways of strengthening organizational and legislative provision of the local self-governments capable of territorial communities; formulated ways to improve financial ability of territorial communities in the conditions of decentralizing public authority.
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Among the issues to consider is the French legal system. Because at some point in time, somehow, you may become entangled in the French 5th dimension of bureaucracy and paperwork. You need to be aware of it and be ready to face the whys and wherefores of this new system. Unlike the common law system at work in the Anglo-Saxon culture, France has a legal system stemming from Roman law and based upon codified laws, also known as a civil law system.
Having said that everything is much simpler if you are a citizen of an EU country because of the high number of reciprocity treaties covering most fields taxes, health, diplomas, etc. This entry will give you a quick overview of the French legal framework and can be of help if you go through it.
France is a democratic republic and a unitary state that combines features of presidential and parliamentary government and evolves under the aegis of the written Constitution of 4 October which is the most important legal document in France and rank first in the hierarchy of legal norms. It is a complex document which encapsulates inter alia the principles regarding the functioning of the state institutions, the powers of the executive the President, the government and Parliament and of the legislative. Parliament passes laws lois.
The executive branch has residual power over all matters not specifically assigned to Parliament.
Measures taken by ministers or other lower level officials are issued in many forms, such as decrees orders, ordinance, circular, instructions , and memorandum. In a broad sense, these ministerial or high public servants decisions are called delegated or secondary legislations. France is said to have a codified law system. That is the collection and systematic arrangement, usually by subject, of the laws of a state or country, or the statutory provisions, rules, and regulations that govern a specific area or subject of law or practice.
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This stems from the 19th century when it was decided, for ease of efficiency, to enshrine all the laws of the nation in 6 compendium Civil Code, Code of Civil Procedure, Commercial Code, Penal Code, and Code of Criminal Procedure. As this system has proved its worth and in furtherance to this French legal tradition, large part of the French laws are thenceforth embodied in codes.
Legal Frameworks for Data Protection in South Africa and Nigeria
So far, over fifty of them have been published. In so far, it is noteworthy that legislation occupies a paramount position in France, while customs and courts decisions play a lesser role. France has a dual system of courts with judicial courts i.
Each court system is headed by a supreme court. It only reviews questions of law, not questions of fact. It examines whether the law has been properly applied in the light of the facts as assessed by the lower courts.
Regarding their competence, the civil courts settle private disputes between individuals such as commercial and contract litigations, inheritance, property. The criminal courts judge individuals who have committed offences. Generally, the administrative courts are competent to settle any disputes between the French state and the citizens.
Constitutional and Legal Framework of Policy-Making - Oxford Scholarship
France has adopted a series of good practices in its court system in four areas: court structure and proceedings, case management, court automation and alternative dispute resolution. If you are brought in a legal dispute, EnterFrance has a state of the art legal team to advise you as to your litigation case scenario. Our attorneys are trained problem-solvers which will provide tailored made solutions at the least cost — financial and otherwise. Globally, France stands at 14th in the ranking of economies on the ease of enforcing contracts. To resolve a commercial dispute, you might want to avoid going to court, either because your business data is too sensitive to be disclosed or simply because you do not want it to affect your relationships with your commercial partners.
In this case you might consider using an alternative dispute resolution ADR.
Related The Legal Framework of the Constitution (The Legal Framework Series)
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